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Artikel | Pengertian Akhlak dan Tasawuf

Artikel pengertian akhlak dan tasawuf ini membahas pengertian akhlak dan tasawuf baik dari segi bahasa maupun istilah; ruang lingkup dan manfaat mempelajari ilmu akhlak; sumber ajaran tasawuf; serta dilengkapi dengan kajian hubungan antara akhlak dan tasawuf.

Artikel tentang akhlak dan tasawuf ini selengkapnya:

Pengertian Akhlak dan Tasawuf

Pengertian Akhlak:

  • Secara bahasa akhlak berasal dari kata اخلق – يخلق – اخلاقا artinya perangai, kebiasaan, watak, peradaban yang baik, agama. Kata akhlak sama dengan kata khuluq. Dasarnya adalah:
  1. QS. Al- Qalam: 4: وانك لعلى خلق عظيم
  2. QS. Asy-Syu’ara: 137: ان هذا الا خلق الاولين
  3. Hadis :انما بعثت لاتمم مكارم الاخلاق
  • Menurut Istilah, akhlak adalah:
  1. Ibnu Miskawaih: sifat yang tertanam dalam jiwa yang mendorongnya untuk melaksanakan perbuatan tanpa memerlukan pemikiran danpertimbangan.
  2. Imam Ghazali: sifat yang tertanam dalam jiwa yang menimbulkan macam-macam perbuatan yang mudah, tanpa memerlukan pemikiran dan pertimbangan.
  • Ciri Perbuatan Akhlak:
  1. Tertanam kuat dalam jiwa seseorang sehingga telah menjadi kepribadiannya.
  2. Dilakukan dengan mudah tanpa pemikiran.
  3. Timbul dari dalam diri orang yang mengerjakannya tanpa ada paksaan atau tekanan dari luar.
  4. Dilakukan dengan sungguh-sungguh.
  5. Dilakukan dengan ikhlas.
  • Ruang lingkup Kajian Ilmu Akhlak:
  1. Perbuatan-perbuatan manusia menurut ukuran baik dan buruk.
  2. Objeknya adalah norma atau penilaian terhadap perbuatan tersebut.
  3. Perbuatan tersebut baik perbuatan individu maupun kolektif.
  • Manfaat mempelajari Ilmu Akhlak:
  1. Menetapkan criteria perbuatan yang baik dan buruk.
  2. Membersihkan diri dari perbuatan dosa dan maksiat.
  3. Mengarahkan dan mewarnai berbagai aktivitas kehidupan manusia.
  4. Memberikan pedoman atau penerangan bagi manusia dalam mengetahui perbuatan yang baik atau buruk.
  • Pengertian Tasawuf:
  1. Secara bahasa tasawuf berarti:
    a. saf (baris), sufi (suci), sophos (Yunani: hikmah), suf (kain wol)
    b. sikap mental yang selalu memelihara kesucian diri, beribadah, hidup sederhana, rela berkorban untuk kebaikan dan bersikap bijaksana.
  2. Menurut Istilah:
    a. Upaya mensucikan diri dengan cara menjauhkan pengaruh kehidupan dunia dan memusatkan perhatian hanya kepada Allah Swt.
    b. Kegiatan yang berkenaan dengan pembinaan mental ruhaniah agar selalu dekat dengan Tuhan.

Sumber Ajaran Tasawuf:

Unsur Islam:

  • Al-Qur’an mengajarkan manusia untuk: mencintai Tuhan (QS. Al-Maidah: 54), bertaubah dan mensucikan diri (QS> At-Tahrim: 8), manusia selalu dalam pandangan Allah dimana saja (QS. Al-Baqarah: 110), Tuhan memberi cahaya kepada HambaNya (QS. An-Nur: 35), sabar dalam bertaqarrub kepada Allah (QS. Ali Imran: 3)
  • Hadis Nabi seperti tentang rahasia penciptaan alam adalah agar manusia mengenal penciptanya.
  • Praktek para sahabat seperti Abu Bakar Ash-shiddiq, Umar Ibn Khattab, Usman Ibn Affan, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Abu Zar Al-Ghiffari, Hasan Basri, dll.

Unsur Non Islam:

  • Nasrani: Cara kependetaan dalam hal latihan jiwa dan ibadah.
  • Yunani: Unsur filsafat tentang masalah ketuhanan.
  • Hindu/Budha: mujahadah, perpindahan roh dari satu badan ke badan yang lain.

Hubungan Akhlak dengan Tasawuf:

Akhlak dan Tasawuf saling berkaitan. Akhlak dalam pelaksanaannya mengatur hubungan horizontal antara sesame manusia, sedangkan tasawuf mengatur jalinan komunikasi vertical antara manusia dengan Tuhannya. Akhlak menjadi dasar dari pelaksanaan tasawuf, sehingga dalam prakteknya tasawuf mementingkan akhlak.

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